air to make ingredients lighter. Sifting
flour is an example of the process. Whipped
butter is another. Air is whipped in, thus
making the butter lighter and increase in
and a or cheese in a controlled environment
for a specific amount of time in a
controlled and ventilated atmosphere to
permit natural flavoring and tenderizing.
"To the tooth,"
in Italian. Pasta is cooked just to a firm
and chewy texture.
Cooking it means in the German style. Sauce
Allemande is made from veal stock, cream,
egg yolks and lemon juice.
enhance the flavor and aroma usually herbs
and spices and some vegetables.
meat flavored jelly/jello that is firm when
cold. Used to flavor and add moisture to
pate, charcutière and cold food
This is the
natural pan drippings or juice that comes
from a roasting pan after deglazing.
organisms, some of which can cause sickness
including food-borne infections. Others can
be perfectly safe and help tenderize or even
add flavor. The blue veining in cheese is an
example of the "good" type.
To cook in the
oven as baking a cake, but also may be used
in meat cookery such as baked leg of lamb.
To brush or
spoon liquid fat or juices over meat, fish
poultry or vegetables during cooking to help
keep moisture on the surface area.
A mixture of
flour and liquid that is beaten or stirred
in preparation of baking, i.e. cake batter.
or stirring it with a spoon, fork, wire
whisk, beater or mixer.
butter until dark brown and foamy but not
smoking. A type of butter sauce called black
Slicing a food
crosswise at a 45-degree angle.
To thickening a
sauce or hot liquid by stirring in
ingredients such as roux, flour, butter,
cornstarch, egg yolks, vegetable puree or
A rich thick
shellfish soup with cream.
cooking method in which highly seasoned
foods are dipped in liquid butter then
cooked over high heat in a super-heated
heavy skillet until charred.
cook vegetables by parboiling them in highly
salted water then cooling quickly in ice
Mixing two or
more ingredients together to obtain an
equally distributed mixture.
To heat water or
other liquids to 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 100
degrees Celsius and to keep it bubbling and
shimmering in the pot.
fish soup made from several varieties of
fish, tomatoes, saffron, fennel and wine.
Clear soup made
from slow simmering lean meat, bones and
seasonings and vegetables. Strained and
served with the shredded cooked meat it was
A bundle of
seasonings; bay leaf, thyme and parsley
stems tied with leeks, carrot and celery
stalk. It's used to season braised foods and
Meat browned in
fat with vegetables, seasonings and then
cooked slowly in liquid so it is partially
submerged then cooked in an oven, this
combines moist and dry heat cooking. Making
a pot roast is an example.
To coat the food
with bread crumbs. Standard method is to
first dip in salted flour, then beaten egg
and then bread crumbs. Items prepared like
this are usually pan fried in oil or
clarified butter until golden and crispy.
To cook food
directly under a very hot 500 degree F. heat
Broth or stock
A liquid made by
gently simmering meats, fish, or vegetables
and/or their by-products, such as bones and
trimming with herbs, in liquid, usually
water. Broths usually have a higher
proportion of meat to bones than stock.
sautéing/searing done either at the
beginning or end of meal preparation, often
to enhance flavor, texture, or eye appeal.
To coat food
with melted butter, glaze, or other liquid
using a pastry brush.
The name for a
tube baking pan having fluted sides.
A frosting made
from sugar, sweet butter, milk, egg yolks
and flavoring. Confectioner's or powdered
sugar is often used buy not required.
To cut food down
the center without cutting all the way
through to open and then spread it apart.
Shrimp cut this way is popular. Meat may be
butterflied when cooking it well done so it
isn't burned during the process as if it
Round baking pan
with straight sides. It comes in 8", 9" and
Plural for squid
Brunt sugar used
for sauces, coloring, flavoring and candy.
turn brown when exposed to direct heat over
a flame, with or without the addition of
some oil to aid the process. Onions when
fried in butter over high heat causes them
to turn brown and have a sweet toasted
flavor. Carrots in a roasting pan turn
golden with a roast chicken. This process
and color change from raw to cooked is
The process of
cooking sugar until it begins to color.
Also, while slowly cooking some vegetables
e.g. onions, root vegetables, the natural
sugars are released and the vegetables will
caramelize in their own sugars, usually oil
is used in the pan to help the process.
A lettuce used
for salad and sometimes called curly endive.
Also added to coffee in the deep South.
Usually a pureed
filling made light and fluffy with beaten
egg whites, gelatin and or whipped cream.
Lemon chiffon pie is one example.
sorrel, basil leaves and other leafy
vegetables cut into julienne strips.
A very fine
conical wire mesh strainer. Using a
chinoise removes the small impurities from
the liquid that is strained. It is a must
in any professional kitchen.
To cut into
irregular pieces with no set size as a
result. Chopping parsley is a good example.
herb with a basil, mint and green onion
flavor, popular in Chinese and Mexican/Latin
A process of
making a liquid clear by adding beaten egg
whites, ground meat and tomato, then
simmering slowly. The liquid is then
strained and the result is consommé.
Also---melting butter over medium heat so
the milk solids settle to the bottom and
impurities float to the top. The foamy top
is discarded and pure golden liquid butter
is ladled off into a clean container for
other cooking uses.
food with flour, crumbs, herbs, oil or
To cook slowly
and gently in a liquid just below the
boiling point. Usually eggs are coddled when
making traditional Caesar salad to help them
absorb and emulsify evenly with the lemon
juice and olive oil. Coddled eggs for
breakfast a different than poached as they
relatively soft but fully heated through.
The mixing of
two or more ingredients into a single
pieces of meat in their own gently rendered
fat until very soft and tender. With
seasonings, brandy/wine and sometimes
vegetables. Duck and pork are two popular
meats to be used in confit. When cooked and
cooled the meat is keep submerged in its
cooking fat as a preservative and as a seal
Applying to raw
or cooked tomatoes: Peeled, seeded and
diced/chopped fine, raw; or then sautéed
with minced onions in olive oil, cooked.
To remove the
inedible center of fruits such apples and
vegetable shortening, butter, or margarine,
with or without sugar, until light and
To create a
decorative edge on a piecrust, also seal the
To restore the
crunch to vegetables such as celery and
lettuce. This can be done with an ice water
bath. Stale crackers can be crisped in a
medium oven. Also a type of a pan baked
dessert made of cooked fruit with a crunchy
flour and sugar topping. Apple or peach
crisp are examples.
food held together by cream sauce, eggs,
flour/breadcrumbs, shaped and then breaded
with bread crumbs and deep fried. Crab cakes
that are deep fried, not sautéed are really
To reduce a food
to small particles, usually using a mortar
and pestle, rolling pin or bottom of a pot.
To crush crackers you may place them in a
double bag and roll a rolling pin over them.
To form sugar or
honey syrups into crystals buy cooking it to
hard crack and letting it cool on an oiled
surface. The term also describes a sugar
coating surrounding a fruit dipped in a egg
white and granulated sugar mixture.
To cut in even
pieces. May be 1/4 inch/ 1/2 inch or 1 inch.
Sides must be of even size to be conceded
cubed. This is a description used in dicing
as an exact dice.
or tart filling made with whole eggs,
sugar,juice and zest of citrus the fruit,
usually lemon. May also be the solidified
nuggets of milk after citric acid has been
added and rennet introduced. The curding
process is an important stage in the cheese
Separation of a
milk/cream based sauce or the cooking of
eggs when over cooked. Sauces look like egg
drop soup when curdled.
preserve an ingredient with salt and/or
sugar and spices. Preparing gravlax,
marinated salmon, is an example of curing.
A mixture of
beaten egg, egg yolks, milk, and other
ingredients. Which is cooked with gentle
heat, often in a water bath. A custard
differs from a pudding in that it isn't
stirred during the cooking process.
or vegetable shortening, margarine, into dry
ingredients for equal distribution. This is
done with the help of a pastry blender and
is an important procedure in making flaky
approximately equal to 1/16 teaspoon, a
pinch or less.
To partially or
completely submerge and cook food in hot oil
until golden brown.
Adding liquid to
a pan in which foods have been sautéed,
fried or roasted to dissolve the caramelized
juices stuck to the bottom of the pan.
To add hot or
spicy ingredients such as cayenne pepper,
mustard or Tabasco sauce to a food. Sauce
Diable is a classic French sauce made with
demi-glace and Dijon mustard.
To cut food into
cubes. The cubes can be small, medium or
large. Dicing is slightly less exact as
cubing is but still should have uniformity.
method that allows food to be cooked
directly over the high heat of a flame
To place small
bits of an ingredient such as butter on
foods at random intervals for the purpose of
adding flavor and to aid in browning during
Double a recipe
recipe amounts by two.
A combination of
ingredients usually including flour, water
or milk, and, sometimes, a leavener,
producing a pliable mixture for making baked
coating in flour and shaking off the excess.
the liquids and bits of food left in the
bottom of a roasting or frying pan after
meat is cooked.
Pouring a liquid
such as as melted butter, olive oil or other
liquid in a slow trickle over food.
on a work surface to evenly coat it, or as
with spices, sugar, or bread crumbs, light
coating a food item.
A mixture of
beaten eggs, yolks, whites, or both with
milk or water. Used in the standard breading
process of foods. May be used to coat baked
goods to give them a shine when baked. Also
may be used as a sealant of pieces of dough.
A mixture of oil
and liquid in which tiny globules of one are
suspended in the other. Stabilizers, such as
egg or mustard may be used. Classic example
is vinaigrette salad dressing.
In the United
States it refers to the main dish. In France
it's a term that referrers to the first
course of a meal, served after the soup and
before the meat course.
A strong dark
coffee brewed under steam pressure. Popular
in many European countries, it is the base
for other coffee drinks such as Cappuccino
A boneless and
skinless piece of meat cut away from the
bone, usually fish.
A well trimmed
center cut steak from the whole beef
To remove the
bones from fish or meat for cooking.
impurities by passing through paper,
cheesecloth or chinoise.
The point where
boiling syrup dropped in cold water forms a
ball that is compact yet gives slightly to
the touch. 243 degrees F.
To ignite liquid
that contains an alcoholic substance so that
Open tart filled
with sweet or savory ingredients, i.e. a
chocolate ganache flan. Second it is a
Spanish dessert of baked custard covered
It is food
garnished or cooked with spinach.
To create a
decorative scalloped edge on a pie crust or
pastry. Also mushrooms and vegetables are
fluted to give them an attractive cut and
rolled symmetric edging.
combine and aerate two or more ingredients
using a bottom-to-top or side-to-side motion
with a spoon or spatula.
A warm creamy
dish made of cheese, eggs, wine, brandy and
or other items. Served warm with toasted
bread cubes, vegetables or stale bread cubes
in which the bread is skewered and then
dipped in the hot creamy mixture before
A stew in which
usually poultry is cut up, fried in butter,
and then simmered in a liquid with
vegetables until done.
A flat Italian
style omelet that is baked and not folded.
A deep fried
sweet or savory food coated or mixed in a
batter. Conch fritters are popular in South
Florida as Corn Fritters are popular in the
Southeastern United States.
To fry thin
julienne of vegetables in hot oil until
crisp and slightly curly.
To cook food in
hot cooking oil, usually until a crisp brown
filling or coating made with chocolate, egg
yolks and heavy cream. Most often used as a
filling for truffles and coating for cakes
such as Boston Cream Pie.
piece of an edible ingredient placed as a
finishing touch to dishes or drinks. A
simple rose made from a radish or sprig of
parsley is a garnish.
The gizzard or
sand sack of poultry. It's popular to boil,
skin, clean and dice these and then add them
to turkey gravy for giblet gravy.
A liquid that
gives an item a shiny surface. To cover a
food with a shiny liquid. Melted apricot jam
is a popular glaze.
Gluten is a
wheat protein that gives yeast dough its
characteristic elasticity and chewyness..
To shred food
into fine pieces by rubbing it against a
coarse surface. Grating cheese or lemon rind
are 2 examples.
together then baked until cooked, set and
golden brown. Cheese or egg yolks are often
and important ingredient.
A thick sauce
made from pan drippings, other liquids and
thickened with a starch such as a roux.
To coat a pan or
skillet with a thin layer of oil.
Meat that has
not had no aging to become tender and
over the heat source on metal racks or rods
in the open air.
cut a food into small pieces.
Halve a recipe
amounts of a recipe by 50%.
In candy making,
the point at which syrup has cooked long
enough to form a solid ball in cold water.
Between 250-268 degrees F.
A dish made of
onions, leftover meats, potatoes and
seasonings. It is molded and then crisply
pan-fried and served with poached eggs and
or demi-glace and vegetables.
A blend of herbs
consisting of chervil, tarragon, chives,
rosemary and lavender. There are many
recipes for this blended used in the south
of France, some may include fennel.
with the germ and bran removed with lye. A
popular Southern United States porridge.
portions of foods, canapés, served as
appetizers before a meal.
To remove the
leafy and stem parts off fruits such as
frosting on a cake, cupcake or pastry. Also
to cool down cooked food by placing in ice
Making tea is an
example. Extracting flavors by soaking them
in liquid heated in a covered pan. Chefs
make herbal infusions to season delicate
dishes at the last minute.
A cookie sheet
that has a two-layer bottom with a space of
air between to prevent hot spots.
A process to set
or solidify, usually by adding gelatin.
A baking pan
with sides about an inch high. Commonly
called a sheet pan.
A dry mixture of
various spices such as habenaro chilies,
thyme, garlic, onions, allspice, ginger and
cinnamon used to season meats such as
chicken or pork, a Jamaican BBQ specialty.
If made well and grilled over a wood fire
you will twitch "Jerk" when eating this very
To cut into thin
strips 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch strips or
smaller, about 2-3 inches long. May be meats
juices released by roasting meats that have
collected on the bottom of the roasting pan.
To work dough
with the heels of your hands in a pressing
and folding motion until it becomes smooth
Salt that is
coarser that regular table salt. There are
several brands but Diamond Crystal is
preferred by many chefs because it isn't
flaked and doesn't contain magnesium
sulfate.1 Tbsp. of Kosher salt equals 2 tsp.
table salt in salting strength.
of fat into pieces of meat, helping the
braised meat stays moist and juicy during
cooking. This isn't used as much as it was
in the earlier days of cooking.
(Yeast) or process (Whipping Egg Whites)
that produces air bubbles and causes the
rising of baked goods.
To place layers
of foil, silicone paper, or wax paper in a
pan to prevent sticking.
A cut of meat
that typically comes from the back of the
Pasta made with
flour and water and then dried.
A chopped or
diced mixture of several fruits or
vegetables cooked or uncooked. A macedoine
of vegetables may include celery, carrots,
turnips, peas, mushrooms, chestnuts and
pearl onions sautéed in butter.
To gently swirl
or layer one food into another to create a
ribbon effect when cooked and sliced.
Liquid with is
seasoned with herbs, spices and vegetables
which is used to marinate food. thus
enhancing flavor or tenderizing the item.
More often than not marinades will contain
an acid like vinegar, wine or lemon juice
and sometimes an oil. The pickling process
uses a marinade in the curing process.
food in a seasoned liquid in order to
tenderize and flavor the food. .
A paste of
ground blanched almonds that is cooked with
glucose and sugar. This paste is of the
cooked almonds and sugar becomes marzipan
when confectioner's sugar and egg white is
added. It is used to fill and decorate
To press or mix
a food to remove lumps and make a smooth
Cold sauce or
dressing consisting of oil, dry mustard,
sugar, vinegar and lemon juice mixed with
egg yolks. Hellmann's is thought buy chefs
to be the best.
Small round or
oval of lightly pounded meat such as
chicken, tenderloin, pork and veal.
whites beaten until they are stiff, light
and airy. There are 3 types---Swiss, Italian
To chop or dice
food into tiny, 1/8 inch or less irregular
A mixture of
vegetables, 2 parts onions, 1 part celery, 1
part carrots and may also contain leeks and
mushrooms in which case the amount of onions
would be decreased. It's used as a seasoning
and flavor enhancer for the sauce that be
made from it and the pan drippings.
To stir two or
more foods together until they are
enough liquid to dry ingredients to dampen
A cheese that
has a mild flavor and used in Italian-style
recipes. This cheese is best fresh and can
be found in many supermarkets in this fresh
wine, juices or cider with spices, citrus
An European term
for margarine, a stick of oleo is a stick of
Cooking food in
a heavy bottom pan without added fat, then
removing any fat as it accumulates so it
Cooking in a hot
pan with small amount of hot oil, butter, or
other fat, turning the food over once or
technique in which food is wrapped in paper
or foil pouch and then baked so that the
food steams in its own moisture and the
in a boiling salted liquid as in blanching.
until partially cooked.
silicone coated, heat-resistant paper used
To peel or trim
food of its outer layer of skin, usually
The mounds and
swirls made in a mixture; egg whites that
has been whipped are stiff if they stay
upright, or soft if they fall over. The same
applies to whipped cream.
A sauce made of
fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, pine nuts,
cheese and water. Modern pesto may be made
with any fresh herbs and variety of
ingredients as long as it isn't cooked.
Round baking pan
with slanted sides, it may be glass (Pyrex)
A small inexact
measurement amount that basically add up to
1/16 of a teaspoon.
Using a pastry
bag to squeeze a soft food through a
decorative tip to create swirled and artful
wisps of the product on to another surface.
To take out the
center stone or seed of a fruit, such as a
nectarine or a plum.
To simmer in
liquid that is just below the boiling point.
Usually about 208 degree F.
that uses steam under a locked lid to
produce high temperatures and achieve a
faster cooking time.
The term used
for the growth of a yeast dough's rise prior
The process of
of yeast dough's growth leading to the final
products. After letting the dough rise,
punching it down knocks out the air before
turning it out onto a floured surface for
A smooth pureed
and strained liquid pulp usually slightly
A small oven
proof dish used for individual servings.
To restore a
dried food back to its original state by
adding hot or cold liquid.
To slowly or
rapidly cook liquids down so that some or
most of the water evaporates.
cooking a sauce so that moisture is released
in the form of steam causing the remaining
ingredients to concentrate, thickening and
strengthening the flavors. A reduced sauce
is the result.
sprinkling cold water or ice over cooked or
raw vegetables to prevent oxidation and to
retain the fresh cooked look. Raw, wilted
vegetables are refreshed by sprinkling them
To melt down
hard fat to a liquid fat.
to let the dough sit a few minutes before
dough's, to leave the dough in a warm place
and allow to double in volume.
A method of
cooking in an oven where the item isn't
covered allowing the dry heat to surround
very rapidly so that stirring with a spoon
does not cause it to stop boiling.
A somewhat equal
cooked mixture of flour and oil, fat or
butter used to thicken liquids. Most roux is
made with a little more flour than fat.
An icing used
for decorating purposes. This icing becomes
solid quickly and is made with
confectioner's sugar, dash of cream of
tartar and lemon juice.
A small gas or
electric broiler used to brown or glaze the
tops of certain food items, creme brulee
finished under a salamander.
thickened liquid that adds, flavor, moisture
and visual appeal to foods.
To cook food
quickly in a small amount of fat in a pan
over regulated direct heat.
Cooking a liquid
such as milk to just below the point of
boiling. To loosen the skin of fruits or
vegetables by dipping them in boiling water
and then plunging them into ice water so
they can be peeled easily.
meat, fish or shellfish by making a number
of shallow often diagonal cuts across its
A scraper is a
flexible piece of rubber attached to a
handle and used for scraping food down the
sides of a pan, bowl or jar. A spatula is
used to turn food in a pan, like what is
used to turn eggs over.
To quickly brown
and caramelize the outside of meats at a
To enhance the
flavor of foods by adding ingredients such
as salt, pepper, and a variety of other
herbs, and spices. Also to treat a pan so it
A thick, lumpy
mass when melted items get cold.
Let food become
To cut or tear
into narrow strips, either by hand or by
using a grater or food processor.
through a screen or strainer to break up the
mass. It produces a lump free mixture that
won't clog a pastry tip during filling.
from dry ingredients such as flour or
confectioners' sugar by passing it through a
strainer. It also aerates the item making
Cooking food in
a liquid at just below a boil point so that
small bubbles begin to rise the surface.
results from cooking 2 parts water and 1
part sugar together, then using it warm or
Removing the top
layer of fat and impurities that rise to the
top of stocks, soups, sauces, or other
A cutting shape
usually meaning thin slices 1/4 inch by 1/8
inch by 1/8 inch.
which a fat begins to break down and emit
term that denote what a ball of the candy
does when placed in a cup of cold water,
234-239 degrees F.
Spin a thread
thread that appears between the spoon and
candy when the spoon is lifted and turned. A
popular garnish on modern dessert
presentations is to use these threads in a
wistful manner to call attention to the
pastry chef's artistic talents.
Spring form pan
spring-loaded baking pan in which a collar
fits around a base, the collar is removed
To cook over
boiling water in a covered pan or to cook in
a special pressurized steam compartment.
A dowel shaped
tool used to hone knife blades.
To soak dry
ingredients such as ground coffee, herbs,
spices, etc. in liquid until the flavor is
infused into it.
of meat, then simmering them with vegetables
seasonings and enough liquid to cover them.
This method produces tender well cook items.
Fast frying of
small pieces of meats and vegetables over
very high heat with continuous stirring in a
small about of oil.
The liquid that
results from simmering bones, vegetable and
seasonings in water or another liquid.
A crumbly baked
good topping, made by combining butter,
sugar, ground nuts, spices and flour.
vegetables over low heat in a small amount
of fat to release their moisture, flavor and
to have them look translucent..
thickness with the addition of more liquid.
combine several ingredients by mixing
lightly in an upward motion.
To tie with
twine to hold together a roast to maintain
its shape while it cooks.
A round cake pan
with tall, smooth sides and a metal tube in
the middle. Often used for angel food cake,
but an excellent all-purpose cake pan for
baking batters of heavy density.
Baked goods that
contain no ingredients to give them volume,
such as eggs, baking powder, or yeast.
Sour juice made
from under ripe grapes, it's popular as a
substitute for vinegar and has a mild
Cold soup made
from a puree of the white part of leeks,
potatoes, onions, chicken stock, cream and
An acidic sauce
or dressing made with vinegar, oil, mustard
A storage method
in which a container is set in a pan of
simmering water to keep it hot.
To quickly mix
air into ingredients such as cream or egg
whites by beating until light and fluffy, it
also is the the utensil used in this
whipping and whisking action.
beating. The utensil used for this is also
called a whisk
A thin mixture
of 1/3 flour and 2/3 cold water that is used
to quickly thicken soups, sauces and stocks
in an emergency..
The thin outer
part of the rind of citrus cut into a thin
narrow strip. It contains none of the white
pith on the inside of the skin.
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